Defective states of character are hexeis plural of hexis as well, but they are tendencies to have inappropriate feelings. And that leads him to ask for an account of how the proper starting points of reasoning are to be determined. For the one is led on in accordance with his own choice, thinking that he ought always to pursue the present pleasure; while the other does not think so, but yet pursues it.
The idea of choice brings up another concern which Aristotle addresses. Which is called after which, makes no difference to our present purpose; plainly, however, the later is called after the earlier. Ethics, unlike some other types of philosophy, is inexact and uncertain.
Thus it is like comparing injustice in the abstract with an unjust man. Virtuous people are no longer those who harmonize an idiosyncratic batch of irrational and rational parts, but rather those who cultivate impersonal and anonymous minds. This style of building up a picture wherein it becomes clear that praiseworthy virtues in their highest form, even virtues like courage, seem to require intellectual virtue, is a theme of discussion Aristotle chooses to associate in the Nicomachean Ethics with Socrates, and indeed it is an approach we find portrayed in the Socratic dialogues of Plato.
The state of most people is intermediate, even if they lean more towards the worse states. Perhaps, then, he realizes how little can be accomplished, in the study of ethics, to provide it with a rational foundation.
For it is to passion and appetite that the one will not yield, since on occasion the continent man will be easy to persuade; but it is to argument that the others refuse to yield, for they do form appetites and many of them are led by their pleasures.
When two individuals recognize that the other person is someone of good character, and they spend time with each other, engaged in activities that exercise their virtues, then they form one kind of friendship.
This is why we should describe as self-indulgent rather the man who without appetite or with but a slight appetite pursues the excesses of pleasure and avoids moderate pains, than the man who does so because of his strong appetites; for what would the former do, if he had in addition a vigorous appetite, and a violent pain at the lack of the 'necessary' objects.
To truly be a virtuous person, one's virtuous actions must meet three conditions: The man who is deficient in his pursuit of them is the opposite of self-indulgent; the man who is intermediate is temperate. For both Plato and Aristotle the good appears to be happiness.
Second, Aristotle is willing to say that what seems pleasant to some people may in fact not be pleasant b31—2just as what tastes bitter to an unhealthy palate may not be bitter.
For they have nothing else to enjoy, and, besides, a neutral state is painful to many people because of their nature. But the good is something that cannot be improved upon in this way.
But even of taste they appear to make little or no use; for the business of taste is the discriminating of flavours, which is done by winetasters and people who season dishes; but they hardly take pleasure in making these discriminations, or at least self-indulgent people do not, but in the actual enjoyment, which in all cases comes through touch, both in the case of food and in that of drink and in that of sexual intercourse.
Sometimes only a small degree of anger is appropriate; but at other times, circumstances call for great anger.
For such actions men are sometimes even praised, when they endure something base or painful in return for great and noble objects gained; in the opposite case they are blamed, since to endure the greatest indignities for no noble end or for a trifling end is the mark of an inferior person.
The ignorance may relate, then, to any of these things, i. Jul 01, · Aristotle's constitutional theory is based on his theory of justice, which is expounded in Nicomachean Ethics book V.
Aristotle distinguishes two different but related senses of “justice” — universal and particular — both of which play an important role in his constitutional theory. Aristotle proposes four solutions.
First, it is possible that a person knows what is wrong but does not reflect upon this knowledge, and so does wrong without thinking about it. Second, the incontinent person may make a false inference when using the practical syllogism due to ignorance of the facts.
Nicomachean Ethics/5 good judge of that subject, and the man who has received an all-round education is a good judge in general. Hence a young man is not a proper hearer of lectures on political science; for he is inexperienced in the actions that occur in life, but its discussions start from these and are.
Like others before him, such as Socrates and Plato, Aristotle was a Greek philosopher who was interested in the best way to live a good life and to cultivate virtue. In Nicomachean Ethics.
Nicomachean Ethics By Aristotle. Commentary: Quite a few comments have been posted about Nicomachean Ethics. Experience with regard to particular facts is also thought to be courage; this is indeed the reason why Socrates thought courage was knowledge.
A summary of Book I in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Nicomachean Ethics and what it means.
Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.A commentary on aristotles nicomachean ethics and the similarities to socrates