Like cable types, cable plant hardware types are quite diverse and should be chosen to match the application type and cable types being used.
Ideally, that means you can influence the location of equipment rooms, routing of cable trays and conduits, availability of adequate conditioned power and separate data grounds, sufficient air-conditioning and other needs of the network.
Microtrenching is another method used for underground installation, generally on roadways or in private yards for fiber to the home connections. They are typically longer networks uses for telecom, CATV, utilities, security, metropolitan networks, etc.
Premises fiber optic cables need to be run separately from copper cables to prevent crushing. From the system standpoint, we have a limit to the loss it can tolerate on the cable plant, called a power budget, determined from the output of the transmitter and the required input of the receiver.
Until recently, most people chose a gel-filled cable, but now dry-water blocked cables are widely available and preferred by many users. Choosing a singlemode fiber is easy, with basic nm singlemode called G. These may include network engineers usually from IT information technology departments, architects and engineers overseeing a major project and contractors involved with building the projects.
They must also be familiar with most telecom technology cabled or wirelesssite surveys, local politics, codes and standards, and where to find experts in those fields when help is needed.
Only inside buildings is there a choice to be made, and that choice is affected by economics, network architecture and the tradition of using copper inside buildings.
It is very important to list every component. For example the type of ground along the route can determine the methods of underground installation, with deep soil permitting direct burial, other soils requiring trenching and conduit and rocky areas precluding underground installation of any type.
It is important to understand the limitation of GIS. Since many municipalities have installed city-owned fiber networks, they may have fiber you can rent, rather than go through the hassle of installing your own.
The choice of the actual singlemode fiber, however, can depend on the application. Some applications may require installing fiber optic cables inside conduit, which requires care to minimize bends, provide intermediate pulls to limit pulling force or use fiber optic cable lubricants.
Only inside buildings is there a choice to be made, and that choice is affected by economics, network architecture and the tradition of using copper inside buildings. A simple solution is what is generally referred to as "Dig Once," a process where the cable plant installer who digs up rights-of-way installs excess conduits or ducts for future cable plant installation.
Future users lease duct space from the local authority and pull in their own cables. The only way to make sure you are choosing the proper transmission equipment is to make absolutely certain the customer and equipment vendor — and you — are communicating clearly what you are planning to do.
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